What is network protocol,applications & Networking Technology

What is network protocol,applications & Networking Technology

A network protocol can be viewed as a common network communication standard, which is used to define a method of exchanging data over a computer network. Network protocols define rules and conventions for communication between different devices, participating in a computer network.
Almost all protocols used in the Internet are common standards defined by RFC (Request for Comments).
Examples of standard network protocols are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol), IP (Internet Protocol), ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), SSH (Secure Shell), Telnet etc.
Devices participating in network communication should know about the common network protocol and communicate according to the way, defined by the network protocol. In other words, standard network protocol software must be running on both devices participating in network communication.
To explain it more clearly, if you are using your browser to browse web pages from a web server (example, www.google.com), you are using a protocol called HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). Your computer must request web pages from web server using HTTP and the web server must response back to your computer using HTTP.
How HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) should work is defined as a common standard, RFC (Request for Comments) 2616. Anyone can follow the common standard and create their own Browser or Web server.

Common Network Applications

Web Browser: A web browser is a network application which enables the users to access the internet. Web browser interprets HTML (HyperText Mark-up language) files sent from a Web Server and displays the content in its screen. Web Browser is the most widely used network application.
Most widely used Web Browser products are
• Mozilla Firefox
• Microsoft Internet Explorer
• Google Chrome
• Opera
• Apple Safari
E-mail Applications: E-mail (Electronic Mail) Applications are used for composing and sending e-mails within the same network or to outside the network.
Most widely used E-mail (Electronic Mail) Applications products are
• Mozilla Thunderbird
• Microsoft Outlook
• Evolution
Instant Messaging Chat Applications: Instant Messaging Chat Applications are used these days for corporate communication and for general chat.
Most widely used Instant Messaging Chat Applications products are
Apache OpenMeetings
Microsoft Lync
Yahoo Messanger
Cisco WebEx
Collaboration Applications: Collaboration network applications are mainly used inside a company for a group of employees to work together for a common task. Collaboration network applications allow employees to transfer their files to a central storage repository and work together on it.
Microsoft SharePoint
IBM Lotus Notes and Domino
Oracle Beehive
Novell GroupWise

Wireless Networking Technology

Wireless networking, allows devices to communicate over the airwaves and without wires by using standard networking protocols. There are currently a variety of competing standards available for achieving the benefits of a wireless network. Here is a brief description of each

Bluetooth is a standard that provides short-range wireless connections between computers, Pocket PCs, and other equipment.

ZigBee is a proprietary set of communication protocols designed to use small, low power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networking.

802.11 is an IEEE specification for a wireless LAN airlink.

802.11b (or Wi-Fi) is an industry standard for wireless LANs and supports more users and operates over longer distances than other standards. However, it requires more power and storage. 802.11b offers wireless transmission over short distances at up to 11 megabits per second. When used in handheld devices, 802.11b provides similar networking capabilities to devices enabled with Bluetooth.

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