LAN Protocols in Networking & Wireless Protocols in Networking

Local Area Networks (LANs)

A network is any collection of independent computers that exchange information with each other over a shared communication medium. Local Area Networks or LANs are usually confined to a limited geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but can often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations

Wide Area Networks (WANs)
Often elements of a network are widely separated physically. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the several LANs with dedicated leased lines such as a T1 or a T3, by dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), by satellite links and by data packet carrier services. WANs can be as simple as a modem and a remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked. Special routing protocols and filters minimize the expense of sending data over vast distances.

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

Wireless LANs, or WLANs, use radio frequency (RF) technology to transmit and receive data over the air. This minimizes the need for wired connections. WLANs give users mobility as they allow connection to a local area network without having to be physically connected by a cable. This freedom means users can access shared resources without looking for a place to plug in cables, provided that their terminals are mobile and within the designated network coverage area. With mobility, WLANs give flexibility and increased productivity, appealing to both entrepreneurs and to home users. WLANs may also enable network administrators to connect devices that may be physically difficult to reach with a cable.

LAN Protocols in Networking

LAN Technology Specifications
Ethernet
802.3 (IEEE Standard)
10 Mbps (Data Rate)
10Base-T (Media Type)
100 meters (Maximum Distance)
—————————————-
Fast Ethernet/
100Base-T    
802.3u     (IEEE Standard)
100 Mbps (Data Rate)
100Base-TX (Media Type)
100Base-FX
100 meters (Maximum Distance)
2000 meters 
—————————————-
Gigabit Ethernet
GigE (IEEE Standard)
802.3z (IEEE Standard)
1000 Mbps (Data Rate)
1000Base-T (Media Type)
1000Base-SX
1000Base-LX 
100 meters (Maximum Distance)
275/550 meters
550/5000 meters
—————————————-
10 Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ae (IEEE Standard)
10 Gbps  (Data Rate)
10GBase-SR  (Media Type)
10GBase-LX4
10GBase-LR/ER
10GBase-SW/LW/EW 
300 meters (Maximum Distance)
300m MMF/ 10km SMF 
10km/40km
300m/10km/40km

Wireless Protocols in Networking

Module Name   
802.11
1 or 2 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band(Data Rate)
FHSS, DSSS(Modulation Scheme)
WEP and WPA(Security)
———————————–
802.11a
54 Mbps in the 5 GHz band(Data Rate)
OFDM(Modulation Scheme)
WEP and WPA(Security)
———————————–
802.11b/High(Data Rate)
Rate/Wi-Fi     
11 Mbps (with a fallback to 5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band(Modulation Scheme)
DSSS with CCK 
WEP and WPA(Security)
———————————–
802.11g/Wi-Fi(Data Rate)
54 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band (Modulation Scheme)
OFDM when above 20Mbps
DSSS with CCK when below 20Mbps(Security)
WEP and WPA(Security)

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